The Working Principle And Type Of Loom

- Nov 29, 2018-

Weaving machines, also known as textile machines, weaving machines, cotton spinning machines, etc., the early looms are all driven by human-powered looms. The shuttleless looms technology has been in research since the 19th century and has gradually been introduced to the international market since the 50th generation. Since the 1970s, many new shuttleless looms have been introduced to the market.


First, the working principle of the loom

The basic feature common to shuttleless looms is to separate the weft yarn package from the shuttle, or to carry only a small number of weft yarns to replace the large and heavy shuttle with a small and light weft insert, which provides favorable conditions for high-speed weft insertion. . In the supply of the weft yarn, the package is directly used to enter the weft insertion mechanism through the weft storage device, so that the weaving machine can get rid of the frequent weft insertion movement.


The use of shuttleless looms is important for adding fabrics, adjusting fabric structure, reducing fabric defects, improving fabric quality, reducing noise, and improving working conditions. The shuttleless loom has a high speed and is usually 4-8 times more efficient than the shuttle loom. Therefore, the large-area promotion and application of the shuttleless loom can greatly improve labor productivity.


Second, the type of loom

★Rapier loom

The rapier loom uses a rigid or flexible rapier head to bring the grip and guide the weft. In addition to being suitable for weaving plain and textured fabrics, rapier looms are characterized by easy color change and suitable for multi-color weft fabrics, suitable for the production of yarn-dyed, double-layered velvet fabrics, terry fabrics and decorative fabrics.


★Air jet loom

The air jet loom draws the weft yarn with the injected compressed air stream and carries the weft yarn through the shed. The most important feature of air jet loom is its high speed and high labor productivity. It is suitable for the production of plain and textured fabrics, fine high density fabrics and large fabrics.


★Water jet loom

The water jet loom uses water as a weft insertion medium to generate a frictional traction force on the weft yarn by the jet water flow, so that the weft yarn on the fixed bobbin is introduced into the shed. The water jet loom is characterized by high speed and high unit yield, and is mainly suitable for the production of hydrophobic filament chemical fiber fabric with smooth surface.


★Projectile loom

The projectile weaving machine grips the weft yarn with a small flap-shaped shuttle with a clip, and projects the weft insertion. The projectile weaving machine has the advantages of stable weft insertion, excellent fabric quality and less weft yarn, and is suitable for the production of multi-color weft fabrics, fine, thick fabrics and wide fabrics.


Third, the composition of the loom

1. Opening mechanism: According to the fabric structure, the warp yarns are separated up and down to form a shed for weft insertion.

2. Weft insertion mechanism: Introduce the weft yarn into the shed.

3. Beating mechanism: push the weft yarn introduced into the shed to the weaving mouth to form a fabric.

4. Coiling mechanism: The woven fabric is taken away from the fabric forming area and rolled into a certain package.

5, the warp mechanism: the warp yarn is supplied according to the need of interlacing, and the warp yarn has a certain tension.

6, rack, start, brake, transmission mechanism.

7, protection device: prevent weaving, safe operation.

8. Automatic weft-increasing device: After the weft is used up, it automatically fills the weft.

9. Multi-color weft feeding device: alternately supply different weft yarns for interlacing without stopping.